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Monday, March 4, 2013
by Christine Yeres
Back in December the Town Board, as part of its SEQR review of the proposal for 120,000 square feet of grocery-and-retail at Chappaqua Crossing, asked Summit Greenfield to supply analysis showing “the rationale and local and regional demand” for such additional retail use,” “impacts to neighborhood community character,” and “potential impact . . . on the Chappaqua and Millwood hamlet business districts.”
Summit Greenfield responded last week with a revised Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) containing a market analysis by HR&A Advisors, Inc. Conclusions: The Chappaqua Crossing site would support far more grocery and retail development than is proposed, and, by capturing residents’ spending now “being leaked to areas outside of the hamlets,” the grocery-and-retail at Chappaqua Crossing “will have minimal effect on existing retailers in the two hamlets.” Moreover, according to HR&A, “by keeping the customer closer to home existing hamlet retailers have the potential to capture some of this spending as well.”
HR&A’s “Supermarket and Retail Market Analysis” states that “there is broad capturable support for 308,000 to 407,000 square feet of total retail space including 88,000 to 113,000 square feet of grocery retail (food and beverage stores) within the defined Trade Areas around the Site.” The trade areas are two imperfect circles drawn around Chappaqua Crossing’s bulls eye, and defined by 10-minute and 15-minute driving times from the site.
Further, the report states, “The development of a supermarket and ancillary retail at Chappaqua Crossing presents an opportunity to capture a significant portion of Chappaqua and Millwood resident spending that is currently being leaked to areas outside of the hamlets, while at the same time having minimal effect on existing retailers in these locations.” A comparison of the retail uses planned at Chappaqua Crossing, the report states, “with those that currently exist in the hamlets indicates that while there may be some overlap, it does not appear that the Project would have significant adverse impacts on the commercial nature of the hamlets.” According to the HR&A report, a grocery at Chappaqua Crossing will draw consumers that the Chappaqua and Millwood hamlets may capture as well.
Data on resident income and spending, area grocery and retail competition, retail composition of hamlets
The full HR&A report [minus two area maps, as noted] follows. Included are data on demographics, income (10514 residents, “have the 37th highest income level of all zip codes in the US”), spending potential (residents spent “approximately $20.1 million in supermarket and $92 million in non-grocery retail goods outside of the hamlets”), “unmet spending potential,” existing grocery competitor sets, the quality of those competitors, target areas and drive times.
While the HR&A report does not include an analysis of revenues to the town, elsewhere in the SEIS documents, Summit Greenfield states that the grocery-with-retail proposal will contribute more than “$650,000 in taxes over the Approved Project.” That is, $650,000 more than the $2.3 million that the approved plan for 111 residential units and the leasing of all 662,000 square feet of office space promises to yield.
[For background on the Town Board’s reasoning in suggesting a grocery-and-retail use for Chappaqua Crossing and on the expected tax revenue from the project, see “A primer on the proposal for a grocery and retail at Chappaqua Crossing,” NCNOW.org, 11/26/13.]
Impacts to neighborhood and town
The HR&A report is Summit Greenfield’s market analysis; the question of “impacts to neighborhood character” is addressed in another section of the SEIS, where it reads, “The Applicant believes that the proposed design of the SEIS-Proposed Project would avoid significant adverse impacts to community character of the surrounding area and the Town of New Castle,” and states that “Impacts associated with traffic would be mitigated through the construction of improvements at two intersections in the vicinity of the Project Site, which the Applicant would construct or fund.” These include 1) the creation of additional turning lanes on Route 117 and Roaring Brook Road—right turning lane for southbound traffic and a left turning lane for northbound traffic; and 2) the relocation of the Roaring Brook Road entryway to Chappaqua Crossing to line up across from the high school entrance with dedicated right and left turning lanes at that intersection, controlled by a traffic light.
See “Traffic Study for Chappaqua Crossing with grocery and other retail,” NCNOW.org, 11/25/12.
Where we are in the SEQR process
As lead agency on Summit Greenfield’s application, the Town Board will review this latest SEIS for “completeness” before advancing to public hearings on the proposed project.
HR&A Advisors, Inc.
99 Hudson Street, Third Floor New York, NY 10013
February 25, 2013
I. Introduction__________________________________________________ 03
III. Demographic Overview________________________________________05
IV. Retail Supply________________________________________________07
V. Retail Demand_______________________________________________17
VI. Development Implications______________________________________18
HR&A was retained by Summit/Greenfield Development (“S/G”) to analyze demand for a supermarket and ancillary retail development at Chappaqua Crossing (the “Project”), located in Chappaqua, New York.
Project Location: The Project site (the “Site”) is located on 114 acres in the northeastern portion of the Town of New Castle which is in the northern portion of Westchester County, New York, approximately 30 miles due north of Midtown Manhattan. The site is located at the Intersection of Roaring Brook Road and Bedford Road, immediately east of the Saw Mill River Parkway. It is approximately two miles north of the hamlet of Chappaqua and three miles east of the hamlet of Millwood, both of which are located in the Town of New Castle.
Site History: The Project site is the former corporate campus of the Reader’s Digest Association, Inc. The Site was initially developed in 1939 by Reader’s Digest and includes over 700,000 square feet of office and support space. At its peak period Reader’s Digest employed approximately 7,000 people on site working multiple daily shifts. S/G purchased the Site in 2004 and retained Reader’s Digest as a partial tenant until 2009 when that company vacated the Site concurrent to its filing for Chapter XI bankruptcy. In April 2011, the Town Board approved 662,000 square feet of commercial office space in the B-RO-20 District and 111 multi-family residential units in an MFPD District on the Project site.
SEIS-Proposed Project: Under the SEIS-Proposed Project, Summit/Greenfield proposes to add 120,000 square feet of retail use and remove 120,000 square feet of office use, therefore retaining 662,000 square feet of commercial space on the Project site. The retail component of the SEIS-Proposed Project would be anchored by a full-service grocery store of 36,000-66,000 square feet with the balance of 54,000 -84,000 square feet leased to complementary retail tenants. The SEIS-Proposed Project also includes 111 multi-family residential units as previously approved by the Town Board in 2011.
For this market analysis, HR&A utilized a set of standard real estate industry accepted procedures and methodologies to calculate area retail supply and demand for a supermarket and other retail uses and to assess the Project’s likely impact on existing retail in Chappaqua and Millwood. (For the purposes of this report the words “supermarket” and “grocery” are used interchangeably and the word “retail” includes restaurants in addition to traditional shops.)
Specifically, HR&A utilized the following methods:
Trade Areas: Standard retail market analysis begins with defining Trade Areas: geographic areas from which a business or center of retail draws most of its customers. Trade Areas can be defined by set geographic areas (zip codes, municipalities, counties, etc.), drive-time areas, rings, or custom polygons that are influenced by natural or man-made borders and geographic features. Because of northern Westchester County’s strong north-south arterial connections and lack of lateral roadways combined with the abundance of area-defining bodies of water, drive-time Trade Area analysis provides the most accurate picture of regional retail activity. To this end, HR&A defined the Primary Trade Area as the 10-Minute Drive-Time from the project site and the Secondary Trade Area as the area outside the 10-minute area but inside a 15-Minute Drive-Time.
HR&A also evaluated the current supply and market demand for retail offerings in the hamlets of Chappaqua and Millwood. HR&A defined the Trade Areas for these two hamlets as the circular geography created by a one-mile radius from the center of each hamlet. Because of the small size of both the hamlets themselves and their retail offerings, a one-mile radius is an adequate Trade Area to fully capture the supply within the hamlets and to generate an estimate of area demand that would regularly support the local retail.
Existing Retail Sales (Supply): HR&A utilized proprietary retail sales figures from ERSI’s Business Analyst Online (ESRI) to identify existing retail sales for all of the defined Trade Areas. ESRI, a third-party data provider, provides sales data for defined geographies based on the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) retail industry categories.
Retail Demand: HR&A utilized ESRI data to identify the total demand for retail goods in the defined Trade Areas. ESRI’s demand estimates are based on the US Census’ Consumer Expenditure Survey, which identifies annual household expenditures on goods and services for a set of NAICS retail industry categories and ESRI’s proprietary Tapestry Segmentation system which adjusts demand calculations based on the demographic profiles of area residents.
Capture Rates: Capture rates are the percentage of total potential spending in any retail category that could reasonably be expected to occur at a given location based on competitive venues, proximity to customer base, drive-time, and quality of venue. HR&A estimated capturable sales and supportable square feet of retail space by applying a range of conservative capture rates to the gap between existing supply and estimated demand from residents within the defined Trade Areas to determine capturable sales.
As part of this process, HR&A analyzed the retail offerings in the Trade Areas to identify retail uses that are under-represented or missing from the market. Higher capture rates were assigned to those categories that are underserved, assuming that if those goods and services were available in the Project they would receive greater market support.
Sales Per Square Foot: HR&A translated capturable sales into supportable square footage estimates based on industry averages of sales per square foot for a set of use categories. Estimates for average sales per square foot by retail category were provided by Retail MAXIM and Dollars and Cents of Shopping Centers which is published by the International Council of Shopping Centers.
It is expected that customers for the supermarket and ancillary retail in the Project will come from the Town of New Castle (including the hamlets of Chappaqua and Millwood), the remainder of the Primary Trade Area and the Secondary Trade Area. To this end, HR&A examined the demographic characteristics of household in these geographies.
The Site is located in one of the most affluent areas in the country. In fact, Forbes Magazine ranked Westchester County as the 47th wealthiest county in the US based on median household income. Similarly, a Business Week report on income tax returns found the residents of the Chappaqua zip code, 10514, to have the 37th highest income level of all zip codes in the US. [Footnote 1]
Area income levels are a key demographic indicator that retailers evaluate as part of their site selection process. As indicated in the following table, median household incomes of residents within the Trade Areas, the Town of New Castle and Westchester County are significantly above the national median of $52,762, and the New York State median of $56,951. In fact, at $200,000 the median household income in New Castle is nearly four times the national median.
Similarly, home values are significantly higher than the national average of $186,200 and New York State average of $301,000. Homeownership rates are higher in the Trade Areas and the Town of New Castle than the national and state rates. Westchester County as a whole has a lower home ownership rate than the US but a higher rate than the State.
As part of a psychographic evaluation of potential consumers, retailers also look at area educational attainment as part of their site selection process. The Trade Areas, the Town of New Castle, and Westchester County all have remarkably high educational attainment levels. The percentage of residents over the age of 25 with at least a bachelor’s degree in all of those areas is significantly higher than the national rate of 28.2% and the State rate of 32.5%. In fact, an impressive 78% of New Castle residents over the age of 25 have earned at least a bachelor’s degree and 26% have gone on to earn a master’s degree.
In addition to overall area demographics and income levels, retailers evaluate area residents’ spending patterns on retail goods and services as part of their site selection process. According to US Census demographic data and ESRI, households within the Primary and Secondary Trade Area spend an average of $10,300 and $9,700, respectively, on grocery products a year. Households in those same Trade Areas spend, on average, $27,000 and $26,400 on non-grocery and non-auto related retail goods. As identified in this report’s demand analysis, the retail spending of residents near the hamlets of Chappaqua and Millwood are even higher than the Trade Area averages.
Grocery Supply in the Primary and Secondary Trade Areas: Based on ESRI retail sales figures and industry sales per square foot averages for groceries, HR&A estimated that there is approximately 180,000 square feet of grocery space in the Primary Trade Area and an additional 132,000 square feet in the Secondary Trade Area [Footnote 3]. HR&A estimated area space supply by dividing Trade Area sales by average category sales per square foot for the three categories NAICS identifies as part of the broader Food and Beverage Store category: 1. Food/Grocery Store, 2. Specialty Food Stores, and 3. Beer, Wine, and Liquor Stores.
Within an approximately 15-minute drive-time from the Site, HR&A, along with Divney Tung Schwalbe, identified 13 standard format Traditional Supermarkets. [Footnote 4] A&P is the most prevalent operator with six stores. ShopRite has two stores. At 36,000 square feet, the average Traditional Supermarket within the Trade Area is slightly smaller than the national average size of 45,000 square feet. In addition, there is one Supercenter, represented by Target. Within the Primary Trade Area the team identified eight neighborhood grocers and delis (which the Food Marketing Industry (FMI) classifies small-scale grocery retail in the “Other” category). Grocery consumers have to travel outside the Trade Areas to shop at a large-scale Warehouse Store such as BJ’s and Costco and Fresh Format Stores such as Whole Foods.
The following table indicates the location, size, and distance from the Site of area supermarkets and local small-scale grocery stores. It should be noted that there are a number of stores located in the broader New York City region that are missing from this market: Stop and Shop has only one store; Pathmark does not have a presence; and Fairway has yet to enter the northern Westchester market.
[Omitted: Map of Regional Grocery Competitive Set]
Retail Supply in the Primary and Secondary Trade Areas: ESRI’s estimate of existing total annual retail sales (exclusive of grocery sales) identifies $221 million and $261 million in the Primary and Secondary Trade Areas. HR&A estimated that there is an existing supply of 676,000 square feet of non-grocery retail in the Primary Trade Area and 893,000 square feet of retail in the Secondary Trade Area (net of the Primary Trade Area). A complete summary of Trade Area retail supply and demand by retail category is included in the following table.
In general, retail supply within the Trade Areas can be found in big-box anchored developments (which include smaller retail and restaurant tenants), small strip centers, and small-scale hamlet retail clusters adjacent to Metro North Train Stations. The following table identifies the larger shopping concentrations in the Primary and Secondary Trade Areas.
[Omitted: Map of Trade Area Outdoor Shopping Centers (as listed above)]
It is important to note that the Route 117 corridor which includes the retail cluster in the village of Mt. Kisco as well as the strip centers along Route 117 just north of the village in both Mt. Kisco and Bedford Hills (an area that HR&A has defined to include the area one-mile on both the east and west side of Route 117 from Route 128 in the south to the Bedford Hills MTA station in the north), has become an important shopping destination for residents of Northern Westchester County. Located approximately three to five miles north of the Site, this area has an array of local and national retailers in both a downtown pedestrian-based setting as well as in larger big-box formats along Route 117 (Bedford Road). Based on ESRI retail sales figures and industry sales per square foot averages, HR&A estimated that there is approximately 458,000 square feet of existing retail space within the defined geography. The following table identifies a summary of major retail categories by square feet of retail space as calculated by translating annual sales by category into square feet based on industry averages for sales per square foot.
According to ESRI data, $162 million in annual sales is generated by this collection of retailers, of which residents of the same defined geography account for an estimated $133 million. Thus, HR&A estimates that $29 million in annual sales is generated by residents from adjacent areas, including those living in the Town of New Castle.
Retail Supply in the Hamlets of Chappaqua and Millwood: In comparison to the broad offerings within the Route 117 Mt. Kisco/Bedford Hills retail corridor, the amount of retail space within the Hamlets of Chappaqua and Millwood is rather limited. Based on ESRI retail sales figures and industry sales per square foot averages, HR&A estimated that there is approximately 50,000-70,000 square feet of retail space in 84 locations in the hamlet of Chappaqua and 30,000-50,000 square feet of retail space in 24 locations in the hamlet of Millwood. [Footnote 6] Of the 108 retailers filling these spaces, 15 are national or regional credit-tenants and the remainder is represented by local operators.
The retail in Chappaqua is clustered near the Metro North Station along Greeley Avenue, Allen Place and King Street. Personal services (such as banks, cleaners and hair/nail salons), boutique clothing and home goods, and restaurants/delis/cafes are dominant categories within this cluster. There is also a broad supply of business services including law firms, financial service firms and real estate brokerage offices.
Most retailers are in small, one- or two-story structures with street side entrances. The majority of parking within this area is shared, curbside parking which makes parking a challenge in peak shopping periods and on weekends.
The largest retailer in Chappaqua on a square footage basis is a 9,500 square foot Rite Aid at 50 North Greeley Avenue. There is an additional small cluster of retail at the intersection of King Street and Bedford Road. The largest store within this cluster is a former small-scale D’Agostino’s grocery store that is reportedly going to be occupied by Walgreens. That site has on-site parking, as do several of the other smaller retailers at that intersection.
The retail in Millwood is located in two clusters: one at the intersection of Saw Mill River Road and Station Place and the other roughly a quarter mile north at the intersection of Station Place and Millwood Road. There are several small-scale strip shopping centers in Millwood, with tenants such as A&S Fine Foods, Chase Bank and Dodd’s Liquor Store that have ample on-site parking. The largest retailer in Millwood is a 20,000 square foot A&P Supermarket at 230 Saw Mill River Road.
The following table is a detailed summary of retail locations and operators within the Hamlets of Chappaqua and Millwood.
Planned and Proposed Retail Development: In addition to the supply of retail offerings within the Trade Areas, there are sites that have been rumored within the local real estate community to be potential retail development projects. For example, there is a 30,000 square foot industrial parcel in Armonk that is zoned for retail and could be redeveloped. Similarly, there is a 30,000 square foot site in Pleasantville that is primed for retail development. Lastly, as previously mentioned, located near the Site in the hamlet of Chappaqua is a small shopping center at the intersection of Bedford Road and King Street. D’Agostino’s formerly occupied the shopping center’s largest space but that operator closed that store when it reconsolidated all its non-urban format stores in 2011. It has been reported in many publications that Walgreen’s will be occupying the currently vacant space.
North of the Trade Areas, there is the potential for development on a site that could support a 100,000 square foot retail project across from the Cortland Town Center.
Retail Supply Outside of the Trade Areas: Consumers that are seeking a more traditional indoor shopping mall experience, with department stores and national chains, must drive to other areas of the County. A look at the whole of Westchester County indicates that the bulk of large-scale shopping centers are located in the southern portion of the county or the far northern section in and around Yorktown. The largest shopping centers within Westchester County are identified in the table below.
Based on an analysis of current retail demand, HR&A found that there is broad capturable support for 308,000 to 407,000 square feet of total retail space including 88,000 to 113,000 square feet of grocery retail (food and beverage stores) within the defined Trade Areas around the Site. HR&A also identified more localized capturable support within the hamlets of Chappaqua and Millwood for additional retail space.
Grocery Demand in the Primary and Secondary Trade Areas: HR&A estimated that there is unmet spending potential of $83.2 million of grocery retail within the Primary Trade Area and an additional $51.9 million within the Secondary Trade Area that is leaking to areas outside the Trade Areas. By applying a range of capture rates (40-50% in the Primary Trade Area and 30-40% in the Secondary Trade Area) to the total demand, HR&A estimated that retail development at the Site could support a supermarket of between 88,000 and 113,000 square feet. HR&A estimated area space demand by dividing Trade Area demand by category sales per square foot averages for the three categories NAICS identifies as part of the broader Food and Beverage Store category: 1. Food/Grocery Store, 2. Specialty Food Stores, and 3. Beer, Wine, and Liquor Stores.
The square footage range for the Project’s proposed supermarket of 36,000 to 66,000 is an ideal range to attract many qualified operators. The supermarket industry is one of “razor thin” margins. Operators need to have stores of substantial size to achieve the economies of scale necessary to support profitable operations. With the national average of supermarket sizes slightly over 45,000, the range of proposed sizes at the Project will support successful supermarket operations.
Other Retail Demand in the Primary and Secondary Trade Areas: Exclusive of grocery demand, HR&A estimated that there is unmet retail spending potential of $248 million on non-grocery retail within the Primary Trade Area and an additional $50 million within the Secondary Trade Area that is leaking to areas outside the Trade Areas. This translates to a total of approximately 750,000 square feet of retail space that is supported outside of the Trade Areas by the leakage of retail spending of residents who live within the Trade Areas. By applying a range of capture rates (30-40% in the Primary Trade Area and 20-30% in the Secondary Trade Area) to the defined unmet spending potential, HR&A estimated that retail development at the Site could support between 220,000 and 295,000 square feet of non-grocery retail space. HR&A estimated area space demand by dividing capturable demand by category sales per square foot averages for each non-grocery retail category as identified by NAICS. Sales per square foot figures are included as a column in Figure 6 of this report.
The development of a supermarket and ancillary retail at Chappaqua Crossing presents an opportunity to capture a significant portion of Chappaqua and Millwood resident spending that is currently being leaked to areas outside of the hamlets, while at the same time having minimal effect on existing retailers in these locations.
Comparison to Existing Retail-Capturable Spending Potential: Within the shopping center industry, supermarkets are often described as an “anchor” for retail development in that they draw a high volume of customers to a specific location. By locating adjacent to or near a supermarket, other retailers have exposure to their customers (and potential sales) while the customer has an opportunity and convenience to shop in one location or several nearby locations. Given the leakage of spending potential that is occurring, it is clear that Chappaqua and Millwood residents are not only shopping for groceries outside the hamlets, but for other retail offerings as well. As previously indicated, this represents approximately $20.1 million in supermarket spending and $92 million in non-grocery retail good spending that is not being captured by existing retailers in Chappaqua and Millwood. While the retail component of the Project has the potential to capture some of this spending, by keeping the customer closer to home existing hamlet retailers have the potential to capture some of this pending as well. In this context, it should be noted that until recently there was a D’Agostino supermarket, a short car ride from the Chappaqua hamlet retail cluster. It is reasonable to assume that a supermarket at the Project Site will replace that use and will recapture some of the customers who have since gone outside the hamlet to shop for similar goods.
Comparison to Existing Retail-Store Size: The ability of the Project to accommodate tenants that require store sizes larger than the physical spaces in Chappaqua and Millwood hamlets can house has the potential to attract retailers that now need to look at other areas if they want to capture the Chappaqua/Millwood consumer market. Tenants that require 3,000 square feet or more of retail space are generally large, national credit-tenants that have stringent internal site-selection requirements including store size, store depth, co-tenanting and parking space quantity. The current supply of space in the hamlets does not meet the site-selection criteria of most tenants looking for space larger than 3,000 square feet.
A comparison of the store sizes within the hamlets and those in the Project show that the vast majority of stores in both hamlets are small, less than 3,000 square feet. Many of them are in spaces that either are repurposed to support retail uses or are otherwise not conducive to attracting larger-scale retail tenants. The modified Proposed Retail Legislation indicates that the Project will have a limitation to the size of stores included in the plan. As per the legislation, “The minimum floor area occupied by a single use in an Office Park Retail overlay District shall be 1,500 square feet, but in no case shall there be more than four retail tenants each having a floor area under 5,000 square feet.” These size restrictions allow the Project to host an array of retailers that would otherwise look outside of Chappaqua and Millwood for a location.
Because of the proximity of the Project to the Hamlet of Chappaqua, HR&A believes that there will be net positive effect as the hamlet will be able to capture some of the additional capturable sales being brought into the hamlet by consumers who will shop at the Project Site.
Comparison to Existing Retail-Tenant Mix: While having a supermarket with ancillary retail at Chappaqua Crossing will provide a convenient shopping alternative for area residents, given the size of the retail component the number of retailers at Chappaqua Crossing will be limited. A comparison of retail uses planned for the site with those that currently exist in the hamlets indicates that while there may be some overlap, it does not appear that the Project would have significant adverse impacts on the commercial nature of the hamlets.
For example, as shown in Figure 10, of the 84 stores in Chappaqua, 12 are categorized as personal service (nails, hair, spa etc.), which are not permitted under the Project zoning. Eleven of the retail spaces are being uses as professional offices (real estate brokers, law firms, financial insurance agents), which are not part of the retail vision for the Project. While there may be several restaurants in the Project, the 16- restaurant/cafe cluster in the hamlet shopping district has become a destination for dining that attracts residents from the area as well as from outside the area. Given this, it is expected that the overall vitality of hamlet should not experience a significant impact from the addition of a few restaurant offerings at the Project site.
In addition, there are close to three dozen specialty retail shops in the Chappaqua hamlet which offer a range of goods—from personalized stationery to gifts, to clothing, to hardware- set within a walkable, architecturally diverse area. While it can be expected that certain stores could be impacted by the limited number of retail stores at the Project, there is the potential that with more customers staying closer to home to buy groceries, stores in the hamlet may be able to capture the spending of customers who are now going outside the area for shopping.
Although smaller in nature, the retail area of Millwood has a mix of tenants that includes personal services (6), restaurants (5), 8 diverse retail stores, a small supermarket and a bank, among others. It is anticipated that while the retail component of the Project may impact some of these businesses, as is the case with Chappaqua, they also have the potential to capture sales that are currently being leaked elsewhere and that the catalyst for this will be the retail component of the Project.
2- Source: US Census and ESRI BAO
3- Total existing grocery retail sales square footage estimates may vary based on actual sales performance of existing retailers.
4- Store category definitions provided by the Food Marketing Institute (FMI).
5- Total existing retail sales square footage estimates may vary based on actual sales performance of existing retailers.
6- Total existing retail sales square footage estimates may vary based on actual sales performance of existing retailers.
7- Source: CoStar Online real estate services
8- Food Marketing Institute
Related: Town Bd sends Summit Greenfield 36 pages detailing need for more info on grocery-retail proposal, NCNOW.org, 12/21/12.
A primer on the proposal for a grocery and retail at Chappaqua Crossing,” NCNOW.org, 11/26/13
“Traffic Study for Chappaqua Crossing with grocery and other retail,” NCNOW.org, 11/25/12.